Diampore Synod AD 1599
The Portuguese became powerful in certain areas of India especially in Goa and Bombay. In Jan. 1599, Alexiyodi Menessis, the Archbishop of Goa came to Cochin. Geevarghese Archdeacon was in charge of the churches in Kerala at that time. Menessis Archbishop with the colonial power behind him used the power to put Geevarghese Archdeacon arrested and put in prison under the orders of the King of Cochin. Then he traveled extensively and influenced the leaders and people. In July 5, 1599, he called the famous Udayam Perror Council (Sunnahadose). There were 153 leaders and 660 laymen were represented in that council. Under the yoke of the Portuguese Colonial force they, accepted the supremacy of the Pope of Rome. However the sailing was not smooth for Roman church. This domination continued for over five decades. Through political influence the Synod of Diamper (Portuguese name for Udayamperoor) was held in 1599 and most of the St: Thomas Christians were brought under the Pope. During this period the Malabar Church assimilated many of the teachings and rituals of the Roman Catholic Church. Roz S.J. was nominated as the first Latin Bishop of Angamaly as successor to Mar Abraham, on Nov. 5, 1599. The Metropolitan see of Angamaly was reduced to a suffragan see of Goa under the Padroado on Dec. 20, 1599, and the title of Angamaly was changed into that of Cranganore. On Aug. 4, 1600, the Padroado of the king of Portugal was also extended over Angamaly. The Thomas Christians were thus placed under Latin jurisdiction. Thus the Portuguese gained all that they ware trying for. If Roz, S. J., had respected and kept intact the liturgy of the Thomas Christians, and had left the Archdeacon to govern according to the "Law of Thomas", things would have proceeded peacefully. But, retaining the Syriac language, he Latinised and mutilated the liturgy adding to it translations from the Latin liturgy. He curtailed the time-honored powers of the Archdeacon treating him as a Vicar General of the Latin Church. Quarrels and unrest, excommunication and absolution of the Archdeacon etc., were the consequences. The Latin-oriented policy of the prelates and the subsequent restless state of the community, which saw several of its customs and privileges disregarded, caused discord and tension. This held back the laity from several positive contributions which they could offer. As a result of the forced Latinization, an open revolt of Thomas Christians broke out against the Jesuit Latin bishops, which led to the vertical split of the community itself in 1653. The dissension after the oath (in 1653) of non-allegiance to the Latin prelates, caused a wound still unhealed in the community. Efforts were concentrated, first, to reconcile the split, and when that failed either group tried to gather more adherents to its side.